Bugan Chuluu or Deer Stones are ancient stones carved with symbols found mostly in Mongolia and some Central Asian countries. The term “Deer Stone” is derived from highly artistic illustrations of deer on stone. The deer stones are created from a long block of granite with four flat sides, on which deer and other images are engraved. Deer stones have three ornamented anthropomorphic sections: a “face”, “main body”, and “lower body” section. The face part contains human faces, symbol of sun and moon and earrings while stylized deer, elk – occasionally horses and Ibex – are engraved in the main body. In the lower body part there are images of weapons, belt and horse riders. The main decoration, deer images are classically depicted in superimposed extraordinary abstract style. However, in many cases deer images or other animals such as Horses, Ibex and Pig images are occasionally depicted in rough appearance. The size of deer stones ranges between 1 – 4 meters in height and 20 – 40 cm in thickness and 30 – 80 cm in width. A combination of different art making techniques is applied on the deer stone statues. Researchers believe that these sophisticated statues, which require enormous effort and skill, we’re dedicated to leaders and great warriors of a tribe. Therefore on the bodies of the deer stones there are engravings of various types of weapons such as daggers, grindstones, mattocks, bows with cases, spears, shields and mirrors as well as belts with decorative patterns. The deer stone statues have their origin during the middle of the Bronze Age in the Central Mongolia and then the early Iron Age they were spread throughout Mongolia extending to some countries of Asia and Europe. The first research on the deer stone was conducted over 100 years ago. Thus far, about 1200 deer stones have been discovered.
This site is located south of the Uushig mountain of Burentogtokh soum, Khuvsgul province, occupying approximately 400 hectare area. It is fascinating and interesting to see a complex of 30 deer stones and big Khirgisuur (Tomb) and slab burials. In terms of statue number, skillful works and illustrations, this complex sites are a great representation of this culture. Especially, statues with images of human face draw attention of many scientists and considered one of the rarest statues.
There are over 100 deer stones, numerous Khirgisuurs, burials and petroglyphs are spread within 45,000 hectare area of the Khoid Tamir river valley of territory of Battsengel and Ikh Tamir soum of Arkhangai province. This site is considered to be the biggest one that situated at one river valley. Besides the monuments, this place also keeps the raw material (stone) exploitation sites, which shows that this river valley was the main area of the deer stone culture. There are also very interesting statues with engravings of fighting warriors and sling-like weapons.
This site is located 1 km from Khanui River in Undur-Ulaan soum of Arkhangai province and occupying 17.9 hectare area. A group of 30 Deer Stone statutes and a number of Khirgisuurs and slab burials constitute this complex site. From these statues, 20 had been fallen and in 2009-2010, these were erected on their original places. This site is called “The museum of deer stones” because there is no other sites to contain such number of deer stones so close to each other.
These square tombs are approximately 30 and their staircases are made of gray granite slabs from mountains near Temeen Chuluu. Stone slabs are used on tombs when they are plastered on the ground without plastering. The guardrail is relatively high, but varies in size. The tombs were erected on the back of a statue with three Deer monuments. Three tombs were excavated from these burials using deer statue and two of them were torn. During the excavation, many of them were discovered in the excavation of cow, sheep fossils.
There are a few square tombs in the Dund Jargalant River valley of Umunudelger soum of Khentii province. There are five Deer Stones. Consider each of these monuments.
Deer Stone Made of a gray marble stone. 1.65 m high, 0.4 m wide, 0.3 m thick. On the front of the statue three, three on the right, four on the back and a total of seven large deer. On the right side of the statue, the carved image of the human head was engraved on the front of the wheel, a flat plane (mirror), the back of the stone there is a ring shape (sun), and the left side (above the belt) carved shield.