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The Secret History of the Mongols is a piece of literature that parallels with famous works such as The Iliad, The Tale of Igor’s Campaign, and The Song of Roland, in terms of its literary and historical significance. The 12-chapter work describes the origin of Mongolians, the biography of Chinggis Khaan, and the history of Uguudei Khaan.

The Secret History of the Mongols was first published in 1800, when officials translated it to Chinese. Afterwards, Russian Sinologist and religious figure Archimandrite the Palladium (Kafarov) translated and published the text in 1866. Since then, The Secret History of the Mongols has been published in many languages all over the world.

it can be said that no Middle ages history has drawn the attention of historians as the history of Mongolia. also, no nomadic nation has ever left a memorable work of literature that depicts the everyday lifestyle of its people like the secret history of the Mongols.

VladimirtsovRussian scientist



Historical records show that the first postal communication was when the Hunnus used checkpoints
to relay messages. Uguudei Khaan expanded upon the tradition in 1235. He established 37 postal relay stations that employed hundreds of families. It may not be the first system, but it was unprecedented in size and efficiency, establishing a strong network system that allowed a messenger to travel from Mongolia to Europe within ten days. It allowed Mongolians to have a more sophisticated information and communications system than any other country in the Middle Ages. This form of communication played an important role in foreign affairs, the speed of sharing information, and espionage work. Some 600 years later a similar service dobbed ‘pony express’ was established by the Americans but it’s believed it was still slower than the Mongolian Empire’s first mail system.



The Mongolians first started using paper money in 1227. In 1236, Uguudei Khaan authorized the printing of paper money and began using it for purchases. Khubilai Khaan also printed paper money during his reign 800 years ago. The Mongolian state was a pioneer in establishing a unified monetary system and was one of the first empires to use paper money for domestic and international transactions.

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